Exploration of techniques of writing for each orchestral instrument and for various combinations of instruments, unusual orchestral instruments, and special effects many instruments can create. Principles of combining and balancing instruments; comparison between the live orchestral situation and the recording studio environment. Incorporation of ethnic instruments into orchestration; application of orchestral instruments to contemporary settings and styles. Overview of the development of the modern symphonic orchestra and the full orchestra as used in film scores. Live demonstrations of instruments; score listening and analysis.